Rumus Matematika SD, Lengkap dengan Penjelasannya

The following elementary math formulas can help students who are still in elementary school to work on various math problems.

Learning Mathematics is very important, because it is useful for everyday life. By learning Mathematics, we are trained to solve problems and think rationally.

So, it is important to understand the existing Math problems. Every matter of course always requires a calculation formula. The following is a collection of elementary Mathematics formulas that you can learn:

Complete Elementary Mathematics Formula

The summary of the Elementary Mathematics formulas below covers Mathematics lessons from grades 1 to 6 of elementary school.

1. Set of Numbers

Natural numbers = {1, 2, 3, …}
Whole Numbers = {0, 1, 2, 3, …}
Integer = {…, -3, -2. -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, …}
A rational number = a/b, where a is an integer and b is a natural number. a is called the numerator and b is called the denominator.

2. The nature of working with whole numbers

Commutative property (exchange)
a + b = b + a
a x b = b x a
Associative properties (grouping)
(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
(a x b) x c = a x (b x c)
The property of adding zero
a + 0 = 0
The multiplication property of the number one
a x 1 =a
Distributive nature (spread)
a x (b + c) = (a x b) + (a x c)

3. How to Work Fractions

Adding two fractions with the same denominator
a/b + c/b = (a + c)/b
Subtracting fractions with the same denominator
a/b – c/b = (a – b)/c
Multiplication of fractions
c x a/b = (c x a)/b
(a/b) x (c/d) = (a x c)/(b x d)
(a/b) x (b/a) =1
Fraction division
c : (a/b) = c x (b/a)
(a/b) : c = (a/b) x (1/c)
(a/b) : (c/d) = (a/b) x (d/c)
Mixed fraction
A(b/c) = ((A x c) + b/c

4. Properties of Working Whole Numbers

Commutative property (exchange)
(a/b) + (c/d) = (c/d) + (a/b)
(a/b) x (c/d) = (c/d) x (a/b)
Associative properties (grouping)
((a/b) + (c/d)) + (e/f) = (a/b) + ((c/d) + (e/f))
((a/b) x (c/d)) x (e/f) = (a/b) x ((c/d) x (e/f))
The nature of the number zero
When all fractional numbers are added to zero, the result is the fraction itself: (a/b) + 0 = (a/b)
When all fractional numbers are multiplied by zero, the result is zero: (a/b) x 0 = 0
The nature of the number one
When all fractional numbers are multiplied by one, the result is the fraction itself: (a/b) x 1 = (a/b)
Opposite nature
All fractional numbers when multiplied by their reciprocal give one: (a/b) x (b/a) = 1
The nature of the spread
(a/b) x ((c/d) + (e/f)) = ((a/b) x (c/d)) + (a/b) x (e/f))

5. Wake up flat

Rectangle
Perimeter = (2 x length) + (2 x width)
Area = length x width
Rectangle
Perimeter = 4 x side
Area = side x side
Triangle
Perimeter = side + side + side
Area = 1/2 x base x height
Parallelogram
Perimeter = (2 x a) + (2 x b)
Area = base x height
trapezoid
Perimeter = a + b + c + d
Area = 1/2 x number of parallel sides x height
Circle
Perimeter = x diameter or 2 x x radius
Area = x radius x radius; where is equal to 22/7 or 3.14
Semi-circle
Perimeter = (1/2 x x diameter) + diameter or (π x radius ) + 2 x radius
Area = 1/2 x x radius x radius
Quarter circle
Perimeter = (1/2 x x radius) + 2 x radius
Area = 1/4 x x radius x radius

6. Build Space

Volume of a rectangular prism or block = length x width x height
Volume of cube = side x side x side
Volume of triangular prism = 1/2 x length x width x height
Volume of cylinder = x radius x radius x height
Volume of cone = 1/3 x x radius x radius x height

7. Unit of Length

For every step up one ladder, the unit of length is multiplied by 10. Meanwhile, for each step of a ladder, the unit of length is divided by 10.
The equation of all the stairs above becomes as follows:

1 meter (m) = 0.001 kilometers (km)
1 meter (m) = 0.01 hectometer (hm)
1 meter (m) = 0.1 dekameter (dam)
1 meter (m) = 10 decimeters (dm)
1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm)
1 meter (m) = 1000 millimeters (mm)

8. Unit of Time

1 century = 100 years
1 windu = 8 years
1 lustrum = 5 years
1 month = 28 days or 29 days or 30 days or 31 days
1 week = 7 days
1 year = 365 days (common year) or 365 days (leap year)
1 day = 24 hours
1 hour = 60 minutes
1 minute = 60 seconds

9. Explaining Data

The mode is the value that occurs most often
The median is the middle value
The mean is the average: the sum of all data/number of data

Those are various elementary math formulas that can help you to do the questions. The more you practice math problems, the more you will understand them.

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